Throughout the eight yr Iran-Iraq Warfare, the armed forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran suffered from its negligible floor primarily based anti plane capabilities which left its territory open to heavy bombardment by Iraqi fighters and bombers. Solely the Iranian fighter fleet, particularly its F-14 Tomcat heavyweight air superiority fighters, may present some extent of safety, with these jets outfitted with AIM-54 Phoenix missiles and used to fly patrols round Iranian cities and army services. This was significantly extra expensive than using floor primarily based programs, whereas additionally forcing the Iranian Air Drive to keep up an overwhelmingly defensive posture the place F-14s would in any other case have been free to take to the offensive. Iran’s lack of air defences would stay a big concern lengthy after the conflict led to 1988 and into the twenty first century.
In 2002 Iran was labeled by Washington as a member of the Axis of Evil and made potential goal for U.S. army intervention. The nation’s air defence capabilities remained negligible to non existent to the extent that hostile U.S. plane, missing any superior radar evading capabilities reportedly ceaselessly penetrated deep into Iranian airspace with out detection. U.S. cruise missiles would additionally recurrently go via Iranian airspace to achieve targets in Iraq, and even cumbersome American transport plane and tankers working in neighbouring Afghanistan and Iraq had been seen to face little significant risk. Iran’s radar community was thought-about inadequate even for air visitors management functions, not to mention for army use.
Iran confronted threats from the potent air fleets of america and its regional allies resembling Israel and Saudi Arabia. all three of which fielded sizeable models of excessive efficiency fighters such because the F-15 together with each its strike and air superiority variants. Whereas Iran fielded a small fleet of F-14s, which suffered from an absence of spare components and ageing avionics, its aerial warfare capabilities had been in any other case negligible. With an built-in air defence missile community being far cheaper to accumulate than a contemporary fight fleet Iran started to hunt fashionable floor to air missile programs as an uneven defensive measure to guard its airspace. This got here in response to each the shifting stability of energy within the Center East after the Chilly Warfare’s finish, which noticed neighbouring Iraq devastated by U.S. led airstrikes, and later to the risk posed by the sizeable U.S. army presence which shortly emerged in each Iraq and Afghanistan within the early 2000s.
Iran had made restricted effort to modernise its air defences after the Iran-Iraq Warfare, inserting orders for MiG-29 medium weight fighters from the Soviet Union and J-7 light-weight fighters from China shortly after hostilities concluded. Plans to accumulate additional MiG-29 squadrons alongside the extra succesful MiG-31 Foxhound interceptors had been stymied by the collapse of the Soviet Union, with the newly fashioned Russian Federation sustaining shut ties with the Western Bloc and being susceptible to Western pressure to not switch these programs. Iran did nevertheless handle to accumulate S-200 surface to air missile system, which was a complicated late Soviet variant of the design able to partaking targets at ranges of as much as 300km. The platform lacked most of the superior capabilities of newer programs such because the S-300PMU-2 resembling a chilly launch system, however benefitted from an extended vary and comparatively superior digital warfare countermeasures. HQ-2 programs, derived from the Soviet S-75, had been additionally offered by China and offered a significant enchancment to the nation’s floor to air missile community. A serious weak spot of al these programs, nevertheless, was an nearly full lack of mobility leaving them extremely weak to assaults by devoted air defence suppression models.
Iran’s efforts to modernise its air defences escalated within the mid 2000s, with the nation establishing a devoted air defence department separate from the Air Drive in 2008. Iran additionally signed a contract for 5 battalions Russia’s S-300PMU-1 floor to air missile system for $800 million, though in 2009 Russia’s Dmitry Medvedev administration cancelled the deal because it sought nearer ties to the Western Bloc main Tehran to reply by taking authorized motion in opposition to Russia. In the end Iran would later obtain a extra succesful customised variant of the S-300 primarily based on the S-300PMU-2 in 2017 below a brand new Russian administration, with new missiles acquired in 2020 to reinforce the programs. Iran additionally invested in buying shorter ranged complementary programs from Russia within the mid 2000s together with the brief ranged Tor-M2 and medium ranged BuK-M2 programs, which in contrast to the S-300PMU-1 didn’t see their deliveries blocked. Orders had been additionally positioned within the early 2010s for Pantsir-S1 brief ranged air defences fight automobiles. These programs all complemented each other, and had been supplemented by the acquisition of Russian Rezonans-NE radar programs, which had been reportedly utilized in 2020 to detect nearby movements of F-35 stealth fighters.
In parallel to international acquisitions Iran additionally invested in growing indigenous air defence programs, and is purported to have benefitted from the switch of North Korean applied sciences because the East Asian state concurrently developed its own modern long range systems. Iran unveiled the Bavar-373 lengthy ranged system in 2016, which had an engagement vary of 200km, and three years later would unveil a second lengthy ranged platform referred to as the Khordad 15. These packages had been pursued in parallel to improvement of brief and medium ranged programs such because the third of Khordad, which noticed fight in 2019 when it shot down an American RQ-4 Global Hawk surveillance drone which Tehran claimed had violated its airspace. Iran additionally invested in reverse engineering and modernising American air defence programs it had acquired within the Nineteen Seventies, which with prolonged ranges, improved flight performances and new digital warfare countermeasures added low price new layers to its community. Most notable amongst these was the Mersad which was primarily based on the American MIM-23 Hawk brief ranged system. An identical reverse engineering and modernisation program was carried out for the Iranian Air Drive’s AIM-54 Phoenix missiles, additionally acquired from america within the Nineteen Seventies, which were fielded as the Fakour 90 and benefitted from a considerably improved vary. These missiles complemented enhancements to the F-14’s electronics and integration of recent and extra highly effective radars onto the jets – which had been derived from the unique American AN/AWG-9 radars. Iranian sources additionally claimed that modernisation of the S-200 system, which the nation remained the most important operator of, had offered them with mobility the place they’d beforehand been deployed as mounted websites.
Iran as we speak fields what’s probably the Center East’s most succesful multi-layered air defence community, which has demonstrated its capabilities in opposition to excessive finish targets together with the RQ-4 and maybe extra considerably the RQ-170 stealth drone in 2011. The RQ-170 was one fo the stealthiest plane ever developed on the time, and was extremely secretive and operated in restricted numbers solely by the CIA. Iran’s capacity to not solely detect the plane, but in addition to trace it, commandeer its sign and land it at an Iranian airfield represented a significant feat demonstrating its newfound safety in opposition to air assaults. Simply six years prior Iran had been unable to even detect, not to mention carry down, a lot bigger non-stealthy American jets. Belarusian and Chinese language help for the operation to commandeer the RQ-170 have each been reported however are unconfirmed. Iran’s manufacturing of superior air defence programs domestically has additionally been a significant improvement, consistent with its longstanding coverage of substituting arms imports with home analogues. The nation’s air defence community has been significantly vital in mild of each exterior threats and the relative weak spot of the Iranian Air Drive, which aside from its two F-14 squadrons lacks any models outfitted with lively radar guided air to air munitions. This may change within the close to future because the nation considers buying new fighter lessons, most notably the Chinese J-10C and Russian Su-35, and as work on indigenous fighter programs intensifies.